Biomaterials and Biopolymers

Biomaterials are natural and synthetic materials used in medical field to improve quality of life by either replacing tissue/organ or assisting their function. Biomaterials, such as bone substitutes, collagen membranes and matrices, are used regularly in regenerative dentistry as well as for bone and cartilage regeneration in orthopaedics. Biopolymers are polymers that are naturally found in nature. Biopolymers are complex molecules with biological activity. Polymers are the macromolecules obtained from various repeated subunits. Polymers used for biomaterials , can be of following types, i.e., Natural Polymers: Chitosan, Collagen, Alginate. These are used for drug delivery, wound dressing, tissue engineering of organs. Synthetic Polymers: Polyvinylchloride (PVC), Polypropylene, Polymethyl methacrylate. Used in implants, medical disposable supplies, dressings, etc. Biodegradable Biomaterials: Polyactide, Polyglycolide, etc.It is advantageous as it regenerates tissue and does not leave residual traces on implantation. Used for tissue screws, cartilage repair and drug delivery systems. Biopolymers are those polymers which are developed from the living organisms. Examples are DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates, etc. It can also be used as packaging material. Polymer composites are used for preparing medical implants.

 

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