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5th World Congress on Synthetic Biology and Advanced Biomaterials, will be organized around the theme “Innovative Biomaterial and Synthetic Biology Technologies for Life and Society”

Synthetic Biomaterials 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Synthetic Biomaterials 2018

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Gene editing (or genome editing) is the insertion, deletion or replacement of DNA at a specific site in the genome of an organism or cell. Gene editing is derived from molecular biology and is widely used in gene circuits too. It is usually achieved in the lab using engineered nucleases also known as molecular scissors. Targeted alterations may be accomplished in different ways, including through the use of new and emerging techniques such as the CRISPR-Cas9 system. ‘Genome editing’ also includes making alterations to non-coding regions of genomes and to epi genomes (in order to modify whether all or part of the genome is active or silent, and to ‘tune’ the level of activity).
 
Techniques of genome editing:

 

  • Track 1-1Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Track 1-2Engineered Endonucleases - zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and, of transcription activator-like effector
  • Track 1-3CRISPR-Cas system.
Synthetic gene networks can be constructed to emulate digital circuits and devices, giving one the ability to program and design cells with some of the principles of modern computing, such as counting. A cellular counter would enable complex synthetic programming and a variety of biotechnology applications. Here, we report two complementary synthetic genetic counters in Escherichia coli that can count up to three induction events: the first, a ribo regulated transcriptional cascade, and the second, a recombinase-based cascade of memory units. These modular devices permit counting of varied user-defined inputs over a range of frequencies and can be expanded to count higher numbers.
 
Modelling

 

  • Track 2-1Coupled Ordinary Differential Equations
  • Track 2-2Boolean Network
  • Track 2-3Continuous Networks
  • Track 2-4Stochastic gene networks
Biomaterials are natural and synthetic materials used in medical field to improve quality of life by either replacing tissue/organ or assisting their function. Biomaterials, such as bone substitutes, collagen membranes and matrices, are used regularly in regenerative dentistry as well as for bone and cartilage regeneration in orthopaedics. Biopolymers are polymers that are naturally found in nature. Biopolymers are complex molecules with biological activity. Polymers are the macromolecules obtained from various repeated subunits. Polymers used for biomaterials , can be of following types, i.e., Natural Polymers: Chitosan, Collagen, Alginate. These are used for drug delivery, wound dressing, tissue engineering of organs. Synthetic Polymers: Polyvinylchloride (PVC), Polypropylene, Polymethyl methacrylate. Used in implants, medical disposable supplies, dressings, etc. Biodegradable Biomaterials: Polyactide, Polyglycolide, etc.It is advantageous as it regenerates tissue and does not leave residual traces on implantation. Used for tissue screws, cartilage repair and drug delivery systems. Biopolymers are those polymers which are developed from the living organisms. Examples are DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates, etc. It can also be used as packaging material. Polymer composites are used for preparing medical implants.

 

Biomaterials are the non-drug substances which are designed to interact with the biological system either as a  part of medical device or to  replace or repair any damaged organs or tissues. Biomaterials can be derived either naturally or synthetically. Natural Biomaterials are silk, gelatin, etc. while the Synthetic ones are  the various polymersBioceramics like Alumina, Bioglass, Zirconia are used to repair damaged portions of musculoskeletal system and also used in dental and orthopaedic fields. Biocomposites are formed by using resin and natural fibres. It can be non wood natural fibres (rice, wheat, coconut, etc.) or wood fibres (magazines, soft and hard woods). Metals are mainly a choice of biomaterials in fields of dental, orthopaedic, cardiac implants. As metals can lead to wear, corrosion, so surface coating and modification of metals are necessary for medical applications.

 

  • Track 4-1Cardiovascular devices: Need, Research and Market
  • Track 4-2Wound Healing
  • Track 4-3Ophthalmic
  • Track 4-4Anti-infective Biomaterials
  • Track 4-5Artificial Ligaments and Tendons

Biomaterials play a vital role in delivery systems mainly in drug delivery. The design of various drug delivery systems, surgical implants, wound closure devices, artificial organs are mostly depends on the biomaterials.Biomaterials help in gene delivery that ultimately induce transgene expression and tissue growth along with regeneration of tissues. By Immunomodulation i.e, modulating or changing the various aspects of immune system, the potency and efficiency of regenerative medicine therapies can be increased. Nowadays, hydrogels are termed as the smart drug delivery system; they are mostly used as sustained drug release systems, which have importance in treatment of cancer. Extracellular media or vesicles are used for the macromolecular drug delivery. Biomaterials can also be used for islet delivery, for imaging, etc.

 

  • Track 5-1For islet delivery
  • Track 5-2In gene therapy
Bio photonics is the study of optical processes in biological systems, both those that https://syntheticbiology.conferenceseries.com/asiapacific/occur naturally and in bioengineered materials. A particularly important aspect of this field is imaging and sensing cells and tissue. This includes injecting fluorescent markers into a biological system to track cell dynamics and drug delivery. Bio photonics can be used to study biological materials or materials with properties similar to biological material, i.e., scattering material, on a microscopic or macroscopic scale. On the microscopic scale common applications include microscopy and optical coherence tomography. On the macroscopic scale, the light is diffuse and applications commonly deal with diffuse optical imaging and tomography (DOI and DOT).

 

The success of any implant depends so much on the biomaterial used. Naturally derived biomaterials have been demonstrated to show several advantages compared to synthetic biomaterials. These are biocompatibility, biodegradability and remodelling. Therefore, these biomaterials are usually applied in the repair or replacement of damaged human tissues and organs. Naturally derived biomaterials have been attracting scientist’s interest all over the world. Naturally derived biomaterial can be classified into many groups including protein-based biomaterials polysaccharide-based biomaterials and decellularized tissue-derived biomaterials.

 

The flow behaviour of biological fluids in living organisms plays a crucial role in determining the state of the tissue through which they flow. Bio fluid mechanics, the study of the fundamentals of biological fluid flow, has been recognized to be extremely important for the understanding of how changes in the flow behaviour within living tissue maybe affect both the fluid and the tissue. Fluids in living tissue include blood, water, air and bodily fluids of animals, as well as the fluids in plants. The movement and balance of forces in resting fluids and fluids in motion are among the basic subjects for research. Bio fluid mechanics is a field whose importance to the field of bioengineering has increased over the last two decades as pharmaceuticals, biomaterials and non-invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures create changes in the fluid mechanics of bio fluids. Bio fluid mechanics is a complex field including one of the most important areas of study--blood flow and cardiovascular diseases.

 

The studies of Polymer Sciences begin with understanding the methods by which these materials are synthesized. Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in various of ways. Addition polymerization describes the method where monomers are added one by one to an active site on the growing chain. Polymers are huge macromolecules composed of repeating structural units. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials. Due to the extraordinary range of properties accessible, Polymer Sciences have come to play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life - from plastics and elastomers on the one hand to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins on the other hand. The study of polymer sciences begins with understanding the methods in which these materials are synthesized.

 

An artificial organ is a man-made device that is implanted or integrated into a human — interfacing with living tissue — to replace a natural organ, for the purpose of duplicating or augmenting a specific function or a group of related functions so the patient may return to a normal life as soon as possible.

 

Remarkable progress has been made in the field of nanotechnology in the past decade. Many new nanoparticles, which are defined as particles with at least one dimension between 1 and 100 nm, have been created, and new medical applications for these nanoparticles are now expected. To be able to create effective and safe nanomedicines, more information is needed about the effects and safety of nanoparticles in vivo because physical properties such as material composition, particle size, surface area, surface chemistry, surface charge, and agglomeration state all influence nanoparticle biocompatibility, particularly with regard to activation of the complement, coagulation, and immune systems. In this chapter, we introduce the most recent developments in our understanding of the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and discuss how our current understanding translates to the field of nanomedicine.

 

Clinical Tools and Applications aims to translate basic science discoveries into regenerative therapies with the application of clinical tool in aging and tissue regeneration. The understanding of the characteristics affecting the aging process is an effort to guide approaches for preventing and treating age-related diseases.Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues.
3D Printing promises to produce complex biomedical devices according to computer design using patient-specific anatomical data. Since its initial use as pre-surgical visualization models and tooling molds, 3D Printing has slowly evolved to create one-of-a-kind devices, implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Fueled by the recent explosion in public interest and access to affordable printers, there is renewed interest to combine stem cells with custom 3D scaffolds for personalized regenerative medicine.

 

Biosensors are powerful tunable systems able to switch between an ON/OFF status in response to an external stimulus. This extraordinary property could be engineered by adopting synthetic biology or biomimetic chemistry to obtain tailor-made biosensors having the desired requirements of robustness, sensitivity and detection range. Recent advances in both disciplines, in fact, allow to re-design the configuration of the sensing elements - either by modifying toggle switches and gene networks, or by producing synthetic entities mimicking key properties of natural molecules. The present review considered the role of synthetic biology in sustaining biosensor technology, reporting examples from the literature and reflecting on the features that make it a useful tool for designing and constructing engineered biological systems for sensing application. Besides, a section dedicated to bioinspired synthetic molecules as powerful tools to enhance biosensor potential is reported, and treated as an extension of the concept of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules. Thus, the design of synthetic molecules, such as aptamers, biomimetics, molecular imprinting polymers, peptide nucleic acids, and ribozymes were encompassed as "products" of biomimetic chemistry.

 

Biodegradable metals are those which are intended to get degraded in the body safely. The metals are either magnesium based or iron based alloys. They are mainly applied for cardiovascular implants as stents and orthopaedics. Hydrogels are the polymeric materials containing water, which are the first biomaterials for human use. They help in tissue engineering, implantable devices, biosensors, materials controlling the activity of enzymes, etc. Degradation of Biomaterials is a serious problem for any medical device whether it is precluding degradation of implantable devices or forecasting the amount of degradation of tissue engineering scaffolds or drug releasing elements. Nanofiber scaffolds are used for orthopaedic tissue repair and regeneration. Biomimetic materials are those which can show cellular responses mediated by scaffold and peptide interactions from extracellular matrix. There are approximately 300 universities, 400 companies and 50 societies working in the field of Bio-degradable materials.

 

Cyber genetics, Norbert Wiener presented a vision where the study of control and communication in the animal and the machine are unified. The field of Cybernetics (art of steering) was born. Predating the discovery of the structure of DNA and the ensuing molecular biology revolution, cybernetic applications in the life sciences at the time were limited. More than 60 years later, the confluence of modern genetic manipulation techniques, powerful measurement technologies, and advanced analysis methods is enabling a new area of research in which systems, communications, and control theory notions are used for synthetically regulating cellular processes at the gene level. We refer to this nascent field as Cyber genetics.